The Genealogy of Disjunction

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Jennings's approach considers the various historical conceptions of disjunction from its place in the logic of the Stoics to the present day. Contents 1. Introduction to 'Or' 2.

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What Does Disjunction do? The Puzzle according to Russell. Grice's Go. Antecedents of Russell's Formulation. Logic, Language, and History 3. The First Myth of 'Or'. Modern Sources. The Sign of the Beast. An Historical Interlude: Boole's Rule 4. The Puzzle about 'Or'. Conjunctive 'Or'. Attempted Solutions. The Larger Picture 5. Logic and Punctuation. Natural Logics. Natural Deontic Logic.

Unnaturalness Elsewhere. The Punctuationist Account. Arrogative 'Or' 6.

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General Noun Phrases. Some Modern Sources.

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Is 'Any' a Quantifier? Form and Meaning. Scope and Form. Heteronomy and Discontinuous Syntax 8. We defined the following six areas according to the distribution of S. The root distribution was set to null. The ancestral ranges obtained were projected onto the final MCC tree. The total alignment of the three plastid regions atp B— rbc L, trn C— ycf 6, ndh A intron surveyed across the individuals of S. These polymorphisms identified 22 haplotypes H1—22; Fig.

As a major exception, the most abundant haplotype, H14, was shared between two populations from Africa and eight populations from Asia Fig. The parsimony network Fig. Of the total cpDNA variation, Based on this chronogram, we estimated the crown group age of Smilacaceae node A as c. In turn, these data indicate that Mediterranean and African—Asian lineages split during the end of the Middle Miocene, which is consistent with the hypothesis that they are Tertiary relicts.

By contrast, the African—Asian lineage Fig.

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While depicting demographic trends over time, this analysis cannot, however, precisely estimate N e because of the very broad confidence intervals see stippled lines in Fig. The BBM analysis of ancestral distribution areas Fig. For the Mediterranean lineage, this analysis identified Iberia A as the most likely ancestral range node II; marginal probability: 0.

The Genealogy of Disjunction

By contrast, here we provide explicit estimates of the temporal and geographical diversification of a single component species of the European Tertiary laurel forest flora, Smilax aspera. In the following, we discuss the evidence and possible environmental causes for these inferences. When combined with the reconstruction of ancestral ranges Fig. As a consequence, the North African vegetation, dominated by sub tropical forests in the Early Miocene, underwent significant changes to more open grassland vegetation towards the end of the Miocene, c.

The estimated divergence time between the two major lineages of S. It seems likely, therefore, that the modern disjunct occurrence of S. Such vicariant events have long been a part of discussions of the origin of Africa—Mediterranean disjuncts e. Bramwell, ; Santos, , but firm molecular evidence in support of this notion has so far been scarce e. The present evidence therefore has two important implications: first, Mediterranean S.

The strong phylogeographic structure of Mediterranean S. Moreover, this network also identified two haplotypes from Iberia H3, H4 as the most ancestral ones of the Mediterranean lineage. This also concurs with the BBM analysis Fig. In order to solve this issue for S. Both events led to the progressive replacement of tropical elements e. Moreover, the Messinian Salinity Crisis MSC , which caused the desiccation of the Mediterranean and the resulting change in ocean currents between 5. The MSC is thus frequently invoked to have fostered lineage diversification and speciation e.

Our molecular dating analyses see Fig. Clearly, these broad and overlapping HPD ranges preclude us from explaining any of these splits in terms of particular geological or palaeoclimatic events, especially when limited in time such as the MSC. Despite these caveats, we propose that our dates are still consistent with the hypothesis that Mediterranean S.

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Moreover, the four phylogroups identified within this lineage i. Yet S.

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However, aside from recent and most likely rare dispersal events between the main peninsulas of the basin Fig. Here, S. Similar LLD events might be responsible for the sharing of certain haplotypes of similar age across the Mediterranean Sea, e. However, further sampling, especially in the Canary Islands and North Africa, is required to clarify the population history of these mainland—island and multiple north—south disjunctions.

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According to the BBM analysis Fig. The relatively recent Late Miocene crown age of the African—Asian lineage 5. Considering that the origin of African—Asian S. Their shared haplotype H14 Fig. In support of this LDD scenario, the most significant dispersers of S. However, although such intercontinental dispersals may add more diversity to East Africa, they must have been rare in the history of African—Asian S.

This finding highlights the predominant role of vicariance in having shaped this disjunction.

Truth tables Conjunction and Disjunction

Our data suggest that the biogeographical range evolution of S. However, the present results clearly show that these traits are of ancient origin and did not evolve in response to summer drought, viz. Mediterranean climate conditions see also Axelrod, ; Herrera, Thus, despite their deep split at the molecular level, there is a remarkable lack of detectable morphological divergence between the Mediterranean and African—Asian lineages of S.

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It remains to be investigated e. Irrespective of the outcome of such prospective studies, the current evidence appears to support the existence of at least two distinct lineages cryptic species of S. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation of China grant nos. Villena Spain , Prof. Ram P. Gituru Kenya for help during the fieldwork, and to Prof. Peter H. Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. Comments Atom.

Trick or treat? Professor Grice and Lord Quinton on the figurative Grice and Quinton on figurative uses of Greek 'phr Figurative uses of 'phren' and Grice's aspects of Refiguring 'phren' and Grice's aspects of reasonin Refiguring of 'phren' and Grice's aspects of reaso